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Forced Religious Conversion and Persecutions by Invaders in India: An Analytical Study

      Forced Conversion and Persecution

In India, forced religious Conversion is not new at all; it has been widely practiced in different ages and era’s, even in today’s world. Forced Religious Conversion induces a person to leave their religion and enter into some other practice or start following other religion through forceful means.   

This practice meant to spread hatred among different religion or one’s religion by adopting the new one, which is fulfilled through the means of temptation or threat or by taking benefit from someone’s helplessness. The religious hatred is even spread by demolishing one’s faith by bribing to the needy ones.    


Many countries widely criticize this practice all over the globe but, India still needs an essential law over this issue to stop this persisting social evil from Centuries.


The advent of Forced Religious Conversion by Mughal and Islamic invaders:


Forced Religious Conversion has been initiated with the advent of several Islamic Invaders as some of them entered the Country with the looting purpose. In contrast, some marched into the Country to expand their rule. Islamic invaders use to destroy one’s religious faiths by forcefully converting them and demolishing temples and monuments at large to prove the superiority of their religion over others.


Islamic Invaders:


Mahmud of Ghazni marched to the Indian Subcontinent and resulted his campaign as the epitome of mass execution of Hindus and forcefully converting them into Islam. During his campaign of the Indian Subcontinent, he invaded India around 17 times by converting about 2 Million Hindus (Calling them Infidels) into Islam and making them slaves of their Generals. He destroyed several temples of India from Kashmir to Gujarat; the prominent ones includes Somnath Temple.


Muhammad Ghori of Ghazna attacked India several times to loot it and forcefully convert people into Islam. Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan around 17 times, and during the 18th battle between them, Prithviraj was defeated by Muhammad Ghori and Jaychandra by deceit. In order to avenge all his defeats, Ghori slaughtered Hindu’s and their temples. Prithviraj at Ghazna refused to adopt Islam; in return, Ghori Blinded him and tortured him a lot. But, Chauhan took revenge of several innocent lives of Hindus and killed Ghori. 


Sikandar Shah Mir and Sikandar Zain-ul-Abidin invaded India and resulted in the mass assault of Hindus by slaughtering and converting them into Islam. Sikandar Shah Mir was famous for spreading the “Love Jihad” concept as he married many Hindu princesses of other Kashmir and later destroyed Hinduism, slowly converting them into Islam. Sikandar Shah Mir was the one who destroyed several prominent Temples, including Martand Sun Temple. He converted many Hindu and Buddhist Priests of Ladakh. 


Delhi Sultanate:


Delhi Sultanate is classified as those dynasties of Invaders who entered the Indian Subcontinent to rule over it. During the span of 320 years of rule in the Country, these Islamic Invaders made all attempts to vanish Hinduism from India through forceful Conversion to destroying temples, monuments and religious places. 


Delhi Sultanate witnessed many dynasties, which were proved to be very disastrous for the persistence of Hinduism. Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed many universities and libraries, including Nalanda and Odantapuri universities, with the remains of the destroyed Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples; these invaders built several mosques over them. 


The Khilji’s, Tughlaq’s, Mamluk’s, Sayyid’s, and Lodi’s rule became the symbolizing figure of mass slaughtering and Conversion of Hindus and desecration of Temples of Hindus, Jain’s and Buddhist’s in different parts of the Country. 


Mughal Empire and Invasion:


Mughal Empire started from the tensions raised between Lodi’s and Mughal Invaders, which last for about 350 years. 


Timur, Babur and Hamayun slaughtered around 7.5 Lakh Hindu’s by entering into the boundaries of the Indian Subcontinent. The main motive of Mughal invaders was to invade the Indian Subcontinent and spread Islamic Jihad all over the Country with violent means. Mass Conversion, the assassination of Hindus and the desecration of several Hindu Temples, including a famous Ram Temple of Ayodhya was taken place during Babur’s rule.


Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, resulted in the spread of religious conversion into Islam through the means of “Love Jihad” by marring Jodha Bai of Jaipur. According to many journals and novels, Akbar used to take “Nau Rose” sleep with Hindu Rajput Queens for the first nine nights in order to expand the Conversion through Biological means. 


Aurangzeb was one of the most cruellest Emperor of the Mughal dynasty who even jailed his father and killed brothers with the motive of attaining the throne. Aurangzeb forcefully converted many Hindus and resulted in the desecration of many Hindu Temples, including Kashi Vishwanath Temple and the remains of the Temple were taken to build Gyanvapi Mosque at the same place. The granting of torturous death to ChhatrapatiSambhaji MaharajaBanda Singh BahadurGuru Teg Bahadur and four Sons of Guru Govind Singh for not accepting Islam further clarifies the cruelty of Aurangzeb. 


Tipu Sultan of Mysore also involved in this Jihad of Converting Hindus into Islam. He always used to take a report each day, from his Ministers that how many Hindus were converted into Islam. During his campaign in Coorg (Karnataka), Tipu Sultan his army beheaded 20,000 Brahmins for not accepting Islam even on the holistic day of Diwali, which is the biggest reason why even today the, Brahmin people of that area don’t celebrate Diwali. During his invasion of Malabar, around 4 Lakh Hindus were forcefully converted into Islam.


Therefore, for around 650 years, the dominance of Islamic invaders did a massive conversion, and our history books still applaud them, which clearly shows that how flawed our education system is right now, that we remember those who killed, raped, demolished our temples and monuments, slaughtered and forcefully converted Hindus. 


Religious Conversion undertaken by Christian:


During the advent of the British Government and East India Company in India, the company had three policies in their mind to implement in the Indian Subcontinent. These three policies are first to trade, second to rule and third popularizing Christianity in India. 


During the 16th or 17th century, the Portuguese instigated religious hatred among Goa and started converting the Hindus based on temptation and bribing the poor. Around 300 Hindu Temples were demolished, and those who confronted to accept Christianity were forcefully converted or killed. This event was even known as the Christianization of Goa.


During some years, they succeed in converting Hindus from southern and eastern parts of India based on Poverty, unemployment, religious tensions and caste conflicts. The British Missionaries started teaching Christianity in the Prominent schools of the country, which are even named by the British personalities.   


But later, this policy by the British Government failed as India unites against the British Government and East India Company. British also don’t have much interest in this topic. They only want to rule and loot the country by suppressing other religions instead of engaging in these types of Communal issues.


Conversion and persecution in Post-Independence India:


At the time of Independence, Hindu-Muslim riots got triggered in the country, and as a result, many people killed, forcefully converted, slaughtered and harassed. The religious persecution and forceful conversion happened during the partition of India and Pakistan. The trains had come from Pakistan to India flooded with bodies as the people were given a chance to either want to accept Islam or die. Many Sikh and Hindu minorities from Pakistan province were severely killed in both eastern and western Pakistan province.


It has been seen in the past few decades that forced conversion in India is again triggered. During the year 2009, it has been reported that the Hmar Militant organization started converting Hindus in the province of Assam. On the other hand, in southern states, it has been reported that those who lost wage in the Covid-19 Pandemic were converted to Christianity with the promise of providing livelihood.


In June 2021, the report started published that around 1000 deaf-mute, children and women Hindu’s were converted into Islam by promoting hatred among those people by Maulvis. 




Forced Religious Conversion and Religious Persecution of people persist in Indian Society. These instances even create the situation of violence and religious hatred. The only way to tackle it is to implement some strict laws over religious persecution and conversion, as these cruel instances are rising day by day.


While analyzing, it also stuck to mind that why sects or religions force these conversions? I could evaluate as a research finding that their thoughts and beliefs narrow these sects, whereas Hindu ideology is a way of life. These sects are confines to the circumscribed boundaries, whereas Hinduism is evolved with its Holistic approach towards the livelihood. People accept the way we believe, but these sects force us to dress the orthodox way of life by various means. 


India is Secular Country here; every person has the right to practice any religion but, it doesn’t mean that any person can start promoting religious outrage and violence.  



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